Young, James, 1811-1883, chemist

Identity area

Type of entity

Person

Authorized form of name

Young, James, 1811-1883, chemist

Parallel form(s) of name

Standardized form(s) of name according to other rules

Other form(s) of name

  • James 'Paraffin' Young

Identifiers for corporate bodies

Description area

Dates of existence

1811-1883

History

James Young was born in Glasgow in 1811. He attended Professor Thomas Graham's chemistry lectures at Anderson's University in 1830, became Graham's assistant in 1832 and followed him to University College, London in 1837. He became manager of the chemical works of James Muspratt, St Helens, Lancashire in 1838, and moved to Tennants, Clow & Co of Ardwick, Manchester in 1844. In 1848, Young established an oil refinery at Alfreton, Derbyshire with James Oakes, and in 1850 he was granted a 14 year patent for a process to extract oil from cannel coal. He subsequently entered into partnership with Edward Binney and Edward Meldrum for the manufacture of oils from Boghead cannel coal at Bathgate, West Lothian, and began the sale of paraffin. Young embarked on considerable litigation against other companies who had attempted to infringe his patent. In 1865, Young bought out his business partners and a year later established Young's Paraffin Light and Mineral Oil Company, with new works at Addiewell, Bathgate. He also patented other industrial processes.

James Young was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1861 and of the Royal Society in 1873. From 1868-1877 he was President of Anderson's University, and a great benefactor to the University. He founded the Young Chair of Technical Chemistry in 1869. He was a lifelong friend of David Livingstone, who had been a medical student at Anderson's University in the 1830s, and funded Livingstone's African expeditions. He was a keen yachtsman and made long voyages with family and friends on his yacht, 'Nyanza'. Young continued his scientific experiments in retirement, notably on the velocity of light, with Professor George Forbes of Anderson's University. In 1879, Young was awarded the degree of LLD of St Andrews University.

Places

Legal status

Functions, occupations and activities

Mandates/sources of authority

Internal structures/genealogy

General context

Relationships area

Related entity

Forbes, George, 1849-1936, engineer and astronomer (1849-1936)

Identifier of the related entity

P0005

Category of the relationship

associative

Dates of the relationship

1870s

Description of relationship

Forbes collaborated with Young on research into the velocity of light.

Related entity

Young Chair of Technical Chemistry, Glasgow (1869-1887)

Identifier of the related entity

C0029

Category of the relationship

associative

Dates of the relationship

1869

Description of relationship

James Young founded the Young Chair of Technical Chemistry.

Related entity

Anderson's College, Glasgow (1796-1887)

Identifier of the related entity

C0046

Category of the relationship

associative

Dates of the relationship

1868-1877

Description of relationship

James Young was president of Anderson's University (which later became Anderson's College).

Related entity

Graham, Thomas, 1805-1869, chemist (1805-1869)

Identifier of the related entity

P0004

Category of the relationship

associative

Dates of the relationship

Description of relationship

James Young was a pupil of Thomas Graham. He subsequently became Graham's assistant.

Control area

Authority record identifier

P0032

Institution identifier

GB 249

Rules and/or conventions used

ISAAR(CPF): International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons and Families, International Council on Archives (2nd edition, 2003); Rules for the construction of personal, place and corporate names, National Council on Archives (1997).

Status

Level of detail

Dates of creation, revision and deletion

Created by Victoria Peters, December 2009.

Language(s)

Script(s)

Sources

Maintenance notes